Oncology

All organs in our body are made of cells. Cells are the smallest constituents in our body and they can be seen only with microscope.

 

Healthy body cells (all except muscle and nerve cells) have the ability to reproduce. They use this ability to regenerate dying cells and repair injured tissues (inside and outside the body). However, this ability is limited. They cannot be reproduced forever. In the life of every cell there are a certain number of divisions possible. Healthy cells know where and how much division is needed.

In contrast, cancer cells lose these conscious and start to divide and multiple without control. By accumulating, these cancer cells create tumors (bulks), tumors can compress normal tissues, and they can infiltrate inside or destroy. If the cancer cells separate from the tumor they created, through blood and lymph circulation they can go to other body areas. In the places they go they create tumor colonies and continue to grow. Spread of cancer in this way into other part of the body is called metastasis.

 

Cancers are classified according to the organ where they started to form and appearances under the microscope. Different types of cancer grow in different speed, they show different ways of spreading and they are responding to different treatments. Because of this, in treating cancer patients, diverse treatments can be applied according to the type of cancer.

 

WHAT IS THE REASON FOR CANCER?

 

Reason for cancer has not been found yet. What is known is that there are two groups of risk factors for cancer diseases. The first group of cancer risk factors is depending on life style, age, gender and family history. In another risk group there are the environmental factors:

 

Consuming alcohol and cigarettes,

 

Staying under the sun during long period and dangerous hours,

 

Excessive exposure to X-rays,

 

Some chemical substances (tars, gasoline, paint materials, asbestos, etc.)

 

Some viruses

 

Air pollution

 

Exposure to radiation,

 

Bad eating habits

 

Signs and symptoms of cancer vary according to tissue and organ of origin. Sometimes even without any signs and symptoms, cancer can be diagnosed at control examination.

 

Pay attention to the following symptoms:

 

An abnormal bleeding or discharge from uterus and anus,

 

Swelling and stiffness on the breast or any part of the body

 

Unhealed wounds

 

Long-term hoarseness and cough

 

Difficulty in swallowing or indigestion

 

Mole and papilloma enlargement, bleeding, color change, wounds...

 

Changes after urination or defecation

 

THE MOST OFTEN CANCER TYPES

 

Breast cancer

 

Lung cancer

 

Prostate cancer

 

Stomach cancer

 

Colon cancer

 

Cervical cancer

 

TAKE CARE OF YOURSELF

 

First we have to learn not to be afraid of cancer. Fear prevents people from visiting doctor and obstructs the patient recovery. It is only doctor´s duty to interpret disease symptoms. Knowing the symptoms of cancer is imperative. If some of these symptoms occur, patient should consult a doctor immediately. Even if you do not feel any disturbance or discomfort, once a year you need to go through control examinations. We should not forget that cancer is a curable disease. Recovery rate and early detection of cancer are directly proportional.